High Functioning Autism vs. Low Functioning (With Personal Examples)

Cam Russo
High Functioning Autism vs. Low Functioning (With Personal Examples) High Functioning Autism vs. Low Functioning (With Personal Examples)

One thing people might not know about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is that it doesn’t manifest the same in everyone. There are varying degrees of ASD that present unique challenges for people at different levels. 

For example, my ASD (Aspergers, as it was known back then) impacted my early life significantly. I couldn’t make eye contact with anyone, I rocked a lot when I talked, and there were many gaps in my level of social awareness. 

But because my parents immediately caught it and gave me the right guidance and resources from the start, by the time I reached high school, many of the challenges I had experienced were no longer an issue. I had a lot of friends, dated often, and loved sports.

Not that I didn’t still have my own challenges, but my social life was vibrant, and nobody really had any reason to believe that I was anything but normal. 

Which brings me to why I created this guide comparing high-functioning autism vs. low-functioning. I’ve seen firsthand the benefits of recognizing ASD early in life. With the right tools and coping mechanisms, I know that it’s possible for many to live successful lives despite the roadblocks that ASD can cause.

In this article, we will explore the distinctions between high-functioning and low-functioning autism, shedding light on their unique characteristics, challenges, and the support systems that can help manage them!

Ready to roll? Let’s get started!

High-functioning autism (HFA) is a term commonly used to describe individuals on the autism spectrum who do not have an intellectual disability and typically display average or above-average intelligence. 

However, it’s important to note that HFA is not an official diagnosis but rather a colloquial term. 

People with high-functioning autism often have fewer language and cognitive challenges compared to others on the spectrum, but they still face significant social and behavioral difficulties.

Challenges of Individuals with High-Functioning Autism

High-functioning autism (HFA) encompasses a range of symptoms that primarily affect social interaction, communication, and behaviors.

While each individual experiences these symptoms differently, certain patterns are commonly observed. 

Let’s take a closer look at some of these challenges!

Misunderstanding and Social Isolation

Difficulty Reading Social Cues: Individuals with HFA often find it challenging to interpret social signals such as facial expressions, gestures, and body language. This can lead to misunderstandings in social contexts.

Because I had so much trouble reading social cues when I was young, I made it a point to study the kids around me. I watched how they interacted, how they reacted to various things, the language they used, and their interests. I did that for years, and it paid off.

Today, when it comes to reading people, there’s very little that I don’t see. And yeah, I’m still trying to figure out how I feel about that…

Challenges in Making and Maintaining Friendships: Due to difficulties in understanding and responding to social norms, individuals with HFA might struggle to form and sustain friendships.

They might appear aloof or uninterested, even when they desire social connection.

Preference for Solitude: Many prefer spending time alone or engaging in solitary activities, not necessarily due to a lack of interest in others but because social interaction can be overwhelming or confusing.

By the time high school and college came around, I thrived in group social settings. I loved parties, meeting people, and being the center of attention.

But I can also tell you that even today, my social battery drains extremely quickly, and I often need to step away for a time to “recharge”. 


Literal Thinking and Understanding: People with HFA often interpret language very literally. They might have trouble understanding idioms, jokes, or sarcasm, leading to confusion in conversations.

When I was in first grade, I was sent to a speech specialist who worked within the school. I had a slight issue pronouncing S’s.

But probably the most valuable takeaway for me was learning the difference between figurative and literal language (idioms, for example).

I learned that driving somebody up the wall did not, in fact, involve parkour of any kind or any other climbing behavior you’d associate with the common household spider. 

Monotonous Speech Patterns: Their speech might lack variation in tone, or they may speak in a formal, pedantic manner.

I did have a tendency to adopt a very robotic, stilted style of talking when I was young. I remember it happened a lot whenever I was nervous.

Fortunately, I caught onto that relatively quickly and spent a great deal of time listening to how radio DJs and on-air TV personalities spoke to try to improve my own quality of tone.

I’ve had a lot of people tell me I have a radio voice, so that might be why.

Focused Conversation Topics: They might have intense specific interests and can engage in lengthy discussions about these topics, sometimes with less regard for the listener’s interest or engagement.

I remember learning about this behavior in people with autism pretty early on, so I made a habit of regularly engaging others and talking about topics that were of interest to them.

I’m fortunate to be pretty well-versed in many topics, so I never have difficulty keeping the conversation going.  

Repetitive Behaviors & Challenges with Routine Deviation

A strong preference for routine is common. Changes to daily routines can be distressing. My parents successfully countered my own rigidity to schedules and plans by purposely changing things up on me when I was growing up. This was to make me more open to flexibility.

Ticked me off back then, but even I can’t deny how well it worked. Today, I roll with changing plans like nobody’s business!

Repetitive behaviors include physical behaviors like hand-flapping or rocking or mental routines like counting or listing facts.

Mental Health Issues

Higher-functioning individuals are often more aware of their difficulties, which can lead to increased anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem.

I’ve always said that my level of self-awareness was a blessing and a curse, because I’d make stupid mistakes, realize they were happening, and still have no idea why they had happened.

Talking with a therapist proved to be very helpful because their perspective helped me understand a lot from an outsider’s point of view.

If your child is struggling with mental health issues related to their autism, I highly recommend finding a good therapist for them and setting up routine visits. 

Employment and Independence

While many adults with HFA can live independently and hold jobs, they might struggle in workplaces that do not accommodate their unique needs and communication styles.

I’ve had difficulties since joining the workforce 15 years ago. It’s always taken me a little longer than most to learn processes, so I think that consistently led bosses to wonder what the problem was and become easily frustrated with me. 

Additionally, I’m very good at what I do (I’ve been in digital marketing for the past sevenF years), but another issue I’ve always experienced is a lack of efficiency due to my organizational challenges. I can do the work as well as anybody, but I’ve never been quite as quick or efficient as the rest of my co-workers. 

This is something I’m actively working to improve. 

Educational Challenges

In educational settings, those with high-functioning autism may require support for organizational and social skills, even though they may excel academically.

In my case, I had an IEP (Individualized Education Plan), which allowed special accommodations for students with learning disabilities.

Mine was pretty simple; the only accommodation I ever really needed was extended time for test-taking. 

In summary, high-functioning autism presents a complex mix of abilities and challenges. While individuals with HFA often have strong intellectual capabilities, they face significant social and behavioral challenges that impact their daily lives. 

Bonus: High-Functioning Autism Checklist!

What is Low-Functioning Autism?

Low-functioning autism (LFA) is a term often used to describe individuals on the autism spectrum who face more significant challenges in daily life, particularly in terms of intellectual and adaptive functioning.

Like high-functioning autism, low-functioning autism is not an official diagnosis but a descriptor. 

Let’s learn a little more about low-functioning autism!

Characteristics of Low-Functioning Autism

Individuals with LFA often have substantial difficulties in communication and social interaction and may have co-occurring intellectual disabilities.

Let’s take a look at some of the common challenges faced by those with low-functioning autism!

Communication Difficulties

Many individuals with LFA have minimal verbal communication skills. Some might be non-verbal or have very limited speech.

Non-verbal individuals may use gestures, sign language, or picture communication systems to express needs and thoughts.

Social Interaction

Understanding and participating in social interactions can be particularly challenging. Individuals with LFA might appear disinterested or unaware of social norms and cues.

They may show less interest in interacting with others and might be more focused on solitary activities.

Behavioral Aspects

Repetitive and Stereotyped Behaviors: These can be more pronounced in LFA and might include repetitive movements, such as rocking or hand-flapping, and routines or rituals that they adhere to rigidly.

Sensory Processing Issues: Like those with high-functioning autism, individuals with LFA may experience sensory sensitivities, but these may be more severe, affecting their ability to cope with everyday environments.

Daily Life Challenges

Need for Ongoing Support: Individuals with LFA often require significant support in daily activities, including personal care, communication, and mobility.

Caregiver Stress: The high level of care required can be demanding for families and caregivers, leading to emotional and physical stress.

Safety and Health Concerns

Increased Risk of Injury: There can be an increased risk of accidents or injuries due to difficulties in understanding danger and communication barriers.

Co-occurring Health Issues: Medical conditions, such as epilepsy or gastrointestinal disorders, are more common and may require ongoing medical attention.

Low-functioning autism presents a distinct set of challenges that significantly impact the daily lives of those affected and their families.

Understanding these challenges is essential for providing appropriate care, education, and support.

High-Functioning Autism vs. Low-Functioning Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a broad diagnosis that includes a wide range of symptoms and abilities.

High-functioning autism (HFA) and low-functioning autism (LFA) represent two points within this spectrum.

Understanding their similarities and differences is key to appreciating the diversity and complexity of ASD.

Now, it’s time for some compare and contrast!

Both high-functioning and low-functioning autism share core symptoms, as they fall under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder. 

These similarities include:

    • Social Communication Challenges: Individuals with both HFA and LFA often struggle with aspects of social communication, such as understanding non-verbal cues and social norms.
  • Repetitive Behaviors and Routines: A tendency towards repetitive behaviors, strict routines, and specific interests is common in both HFA and LFA.
  • Sensory Sensitivities: Both groups may experience heightened or reduced sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as light, sound, and touch.

Differences in ASD Symptoms and Daily Life Impact

Communication Skills

HFA: Typically have no significant delay in language development. Their challenges are more related to the pragmatic use of language.

LFA: May have little to no verbal communication skills and often rely on alternative methods of communication.

Intellectual Functioning

HFA: Generally have average to above-average intelligence. Intellectual disability is not a characteristic of high-functioning autism.

LFA: Often have co-occurring intellectual disabilities, affecting their ability to learn, communicate, and perform daily tasks.


HFA: Many can live independently, though they may struggle with social relationships and employment.

LFA: Typically require more substantial support in daily living and may depend on caregivers for their entire lives.

Social Interaction

HFA: Despite difficulties, they often seek social interactions but struggle to navigate them successfully.

LFA: May show less interest in social interaction and have more pronounced difficulties in social settings.

Educational and Employment Opportunities

HFA: Often able to participate in mainstream education and employment, with accommodations.

LFA: May require specialized educational programs and are less likely to be employed in mainstream jobs.


The process of diagnosing ASD can vary based on where an individual falls on the spectrum.

For high-functioning autism, the diagnosis might be made later in life, especially if intellectual and language development are typical.

In contrast, low-functioning autism is often diagnosed earlier due to more visible developmental delays and challenges.

Support and Resources for Both High and Low-Functioning Autism

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), whether high-functioning or low-functioning, benefit immensely from a range of support systems and resources.

These are tailored to meet their unique needs and challenges, enhancing their ability to thrive in various aspects of life.

Behavioral Therapies

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): A widely used therapy in ASD, ABA is customizable to each individual’s needs. For those with HFA, it can focus on social skills and reducing behaviors that interfere with learning and functioning.

In LFA, ABA often targets basic skills like listening, looking, and imitating, as well as reducing harmful behaviors.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Particularly beneficial for individuals with HFA, CBT helps in managing anxiety, improving emotional regulation, and understanding complex social dynamics. It’s effective in teaching coping strategies for dealing with the stressors of daily life.

Speech and Language Therapy

Tailored to the individual’s communication abilities, this therapy addresses a range of communication challenges.

For HFA, it might focus on advanced language skills like understanding figurative language and enhancing conversational abilities.

For LFA, the emphasis might be on developing non-verbal communication methods, like sign language or picture communication systems.

Occupational Therapy

Essential for developing life skills, occupational therapy assists with sensory integration, coordination, and motor skills.

It’s tailored to help individuals manage everyday tasks and improve their independence.

I had occupational therapy from kindergarten to fifth grade, and the specialist had me doing fine motor exercises like finding beads in a lump of Play-Doh, completing mazes using a pencil, and playing catch with a tennis ball.

Did it help? Yeah, I think it did. I mean, my handwriting still looks like a four-year-old’s…but I’ll tell you this, I never had trouble recovering beads from Play-Doh again!

Inclusive Education and Accommodations

For HFA, integrating into mainstream education with specific accommodations like extra time for assignments or a quiet place for exams can be beneficial.

For LFA, specialized educational settings with a focus on individualized learning approaches, sensory-friendly environments, and life skills training are often more appropriate.

Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)

IEPs are critical in ensuring educational experiences are tailored to each student’s needs. They include specific goals and objectives based on the individual’s abilities and challenges and involve parents, educators, and therapists in the planning process.

Technology and Assistive Devices

From communication apps to sensory integration tools, technology plays a key role in supporting individuals with ASD.

For those with HFA, technology can aid in organization and social interaction.

For those with LFA, assistive technologies can facilitate basic communication and learning.

Importance of Early ASD Intervention

Early intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder is paramount. The first few years of a child’s life are a critical period for brain development, and interventions during this time can have a profound impact on long-term outcomes for individuals with ASD.

Early Diagnosis

Identifying ASD Early: The sooner autism is diagnosed, the sooner effective interventions can begin. Early diagnosis, ideally before the age of 3, is crucial as it opens the door to early intervention services, which can significantly improve a child’s development.

Understanding the Signs: Early signs of autism can include delayed speech development, limited social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and unusual responses to sensory stimuli. Recognizing these signs and seeking a professional evaluation is the first step toward diagnosis.

Benefits of Tailored Early ASD Intervention

Customized Therapeutic Approaches: Early intervention programs are tailored to meet the unique needs of each child. For children with more significant challenges (akin to low-functioning autism), these programs might focus on basic communication skills, social interaction, and reducing problematic behaviors.

For those with less severe symptoms (similar to high-functioning autism), the focus might be on enhancing social skills, coping strategies, and managing sensory sensitivities.

Neuroplasticity: Young children’s brains are incredibly adaptable. Early intervention takes advantage of this concept, helping to develop new neural pathways that can lead to improved cognitive, social, and language skills.

Long-Term Benefits: Research shows that children who receive early intervention services often require fewer services later in life and can have improved outcomes in areas like independent living, employment, and social relationships.

Wrapping it Up

As we conclude our exploration of high-functioning and low-functioning autism, it’s clear that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide and diverse range of experiences and challenges.

From the social and communicative hurdles faced by individuals with high-functioning autism to the more pronounced needs of those with low-functioning autism, understanding this spectrum is crucial for providing appropriate support and fostering acceptance.

Key Takeaways

    • It’s important to recognize the unique abilities and challenges within the autism spectrum, the necessity of personalized support and interventions, and the profound impact of early diagnosis and intervention on long-term outcomes.
    • Each individual with autism, whether high or low functioning, has their own set of strengths and challenges, and a one-size-fits-all approach does not suffice.
    • Tailored therapies, inclusive educational strategies, and robust community support are essential in helping individuals with ASD reach their fullest potential.

Moving forward, it’s imperative that we continue to educate ourselves and others about ASD. For families, caregivers, and educators, staying informed and connected to supportive networks can make a significant difference!